Demographics

collage-demographicsWhy is this important?

The size and makeup of the city’s population has major implications for city planners, school boards, businesses, health care institutions, and community organizations—in fact, for everybody.

 

What are the trends?

The Toronto Region’s population base is one of the fastest growing in Canada; growth between 2001 and 2014 equaled 83% of the total population of Calgary in 2014. More than half of the global population (54%) now lives in cities, and by 2050 it is expected to grow to 66%. Toronto has more than twice the proportion of recent immigrants (8.4%) as Canada (3.5%) Toronto’s population continues to age. Seniors represent almost 15% of the city’s residents, and it has been projected that the GTA will absorb more than half the provincial increase in the over-75 population between 2011 and 2016.

 

 

Some Key Demographic Trends

 

Data refer to the city of Toronto unless otherwise noted.

2012 2013 2014
1.    Population of the city of Toronto 2,741,281 2,777,208 2,808,507[1]
2.    Share of the population who are youth (15-24) 13.05% 12.97% 12.92%[2]
3.    Share of the population who are seniors (65 years and over) 14.21% 14.5% 14.76%[3]
4.    Number of new permanent residents (Toronto Region) 77,398 81,702 75,821[4]
5.    Percentage population growth 1.36%

(2011-2012)

1.31%

(2012-2013)

1.13%

(2013-2014)[5]

 

 

What’s new?

As in other major North American cities, transit infrastructure in Toronto is being overwhelmed by the numbers of people who are increasingly choosing to work and live downtown. But progress on critical transit improvements in the GTA has been hindered by a lack of governmental consensus on how to fund the $50B Big Move plan and by debates over subways versus LRT lines in Toronto. Although immigration has been one of the city’s main sources of growth, its share as a source of population growth declined by almost a fifth from 2011 to 2013. Meanwhile, the loss of the long-form census is affecting the ability of city leaders to plan.

 

 

 

How much is Toronto’s population growing, and which demographic is growing the fastest?

 

The GTA (2014 population estimate: accounted for 72% of total Ontario population growth between 2006 and 2011:[6]

  • A projection based on the 2011 National Household Survey estimates that the Region will grow an average 1.6% (or 108,766 persons) annually between 2014 and 2019, bringing the population to almost 7.1 million.[7]
  • One estimate puts the 2014 GTA population at 6,546,519.[8]

 

The number of people who have come to the Region since 2001 is almost the same number of people who lived in Vancouver in 2014:

  • The Toronto Region’s population base is one of the fastest growing in Canada.
  • The Region’s population in 2014 was 6,055,724, up 1.61% from 5,959,950 in 2013 (versus a 1.42% increase across the province). Between 1996 and 2014, the population increased by an average of 2.1% per year (versus 33% at the provincial level).
  • Between 2001 (when the population was 4,882,782) and 2014 the Region added 1,172,942 people, or 83% of the population of Calgary in 2014 (1,406,721).[9]
  • More than 40% (42.9%) of the Region’s population in 2014 lived within the city of Toronto.[10]
  • Almost 1 in 5 Canadians (18.1% of the total population) lived in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 2011.[11]

 

Demo-CanadasTop10CMAsRanked

Canada’s Top 10 CMAs Ranked by Population and Projected Population Growth, 2014–2019[12]

 

The City of Toronto’s population grew by 5.5% between 2006 and 2011 (from 2,610,578 to 2,753,131).[13]

  • In 2014, Toronto’s population was 2,808,507, up 1.13% from 2,777,208 in 2013. Growth was slightly higher between 2011 and 2012 (+1.36%) and between 2012 and 2013 (+1.31%).[14]

 

  • These urbanization trends reflect similar shifts occurring the world over – more than half (54%) of the global population now lives in urban areas, and the proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas is expected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050.[15]

Latest census figures illustrate an ongoing demographic shift that will see the number of seniors grow from 1 in 7 Canadians in 2011 to about 1 in 4 by 2036[16]:

  • The fastest-growing population segments in 2011 were 60-64 year-olds and those over 85.
  • Across the GTA, the over-65 and over-75 age groups grew by 16.5% between 2006 and 2011, and the GTA is projected to absorb more than half the provincial increase in the over-75 group between 2011 and 2016 (more than 60,000 people).[17]
  • projectingLong-term care homes are dealing with residents who are older, more frail, and have more complex care needs (as of 2010, only seniors with high or very high care needs are eligible for long-term care).[18]
  • According to estimates since the 2011 census, seniors (65+) made up 14.76% of the Toronto population in 2014, up from 14.5% in 2013 and 14.21% in 2012.[19]
    • 72% of Toronto’s seniors (65 and older) are women.[20]
    • Seniors made up 13.6% of the population of the Region in 2014, slightly below the provincial rate (15.6%). Between 2001 and 2014 the proportion of seniors in the Region’s population increased by 24.8% (versus 25% province wide).[21]

 

Demo-PopulationChangeOlder

Population Change in Older Adult Population 55+, Toronto, 2001-2011[22]

The number of adults 55 years and older has increased in all but one of Toronto’s neighbourhoods over a 10-year period. Source: Statistics Canada Census, 2001 and 2011. Map prepared by City of Toronto Social Development Finance and Administration.

 

  • 2011 Census data indicate that over one in five Torontonians (22%) 55 years and older live alone. The percentage doubles for Toronto’s oldest citizens—44% of those 85 and older live alone.
  • Multiple estimates forecast significant growth in Toronto’s older adult population.[23]

 

projectingDemo-ForecastedPercentageOlderAdults

Forecasted Percentage of Older Adults in Toronto’s Total Population[24]

Source: Statistics Canada 2011 Census. Prepared by Hemson Consulting, 2012.

 

  • The share of the city’s population who are youth aged 15-24 has remained relatively stable in the last decade. Youth accounted for 12.7% of the population in the 2006 Census, 12.8% in the 2011 NHS[25], 05% in 2012, 12.97% in 2013, and 12.92% in 2014.[26]
    • Children (under 15) made up 14.36% of the city’s population in 2014 (slightly down from 14.52% in 2013 and 14.71% in 2012),[27] and 16.3% of the Region’s population, slightly below the provincial rate of 16%. Between 2001 and 2014 the Region’s share of children dropped by 15.9% (versus 17.5% province wide).[28]

 

Are immigrants and their families still choosing Toronto to live, work, and play?

 

Almost one-third of Torontonians arrived in the city between 1991 and 2011:

  • 30.7% of the city’s 2011 population—790,895 (including non-permanent residents) of a total population of 2,576,025—arrived in the two decades before the 2011 NHS.[29]

 

One of every six immigrants to Canada in the five years before the last census chose to settle in Toronto:[30]

  • In 2013 Toronto had a total of 81,691 new permanent residents.[31]
  • The city of Toronto became home to 216,520 new residents from all over the world between 2006 and 2011.
  • In 2011, 51% of Toronto residents were born outside of Canada, and one in 12 had arrived in the country in the previous five years. One-third of the total population of immigrants in Toronto had arrived in Canada within the previous 10 years. Toronto has more than twice the proportion of recent immigrants as Canada (8.4% compared to 3.5% nationally).
    • 14% of Toronto residents don’t yet hold Canadian citizenship (compared to 6% for all of Canada).[32]

 

Demo-NumberNewPermanentResidents

Number of New Permanent Residents, Toronto, 1998–2013[33]

 

Three thriving “ethnoburbs” (ethnic suburbs) are emerging in the Toronto Region:

  • Many of the immigrants coming to the Toronto Region in the last decades have settled directly in the suburbs, drawn by more affordable housing and open spaces, and jobs in suburban business and industrial parks. They have created distinct ethnic suburbs (complete multi-ethnic communities of residences, businesses and cultural institutions, with a high concentration of one ethnic group).
    • One study found that by 2006, more than one-third of the Toronto Region’s neighbourhoods (35%) were made up of half or more visible minority residents. More than half of North York’s neighbourhoods and 76% of Scarborough’s had over 50% visible minority populations. Some of these richly diverse communities have evolved into ethnoburbs.
    • The study identified three distinct ethnoburbs in the Region: one that includes Brampton, most of Mississauga, north Etobicoke and western North York and is predominantly South Asian; a second that includes most of Markham, Scarborough, eastern North York and part of Richmond Hill, with a predominantly Chinese visible minority population; and a third emerging in Pickering and Ajax, with a high South Asian population.
    • In Toronto’s ethnoburbs, local residents own, or have a stake in a large percentage of local businesses and have developed a full range of cultural institutions.
      • By July 2011, there were 57 Chinese supermarkets and 66 Chinese shopping centres in the Toronto Region to serve 500,000 Chinese ethnic minority residents.
      • The first South Asian shopping centre opened in Scarborough in 2008 and three new centres will add 540,000 sq. ft. of commercial space in Brampton and Scarborough.[34]

 

Demo-DistributionSouthAsianTemplesChineseShoppingCentres

Distribution of South Asian Temples and Chinese Shopping Centres, Toronto Region, 2011 (shaded areas are “ethnoburbs”) [35] 

 

Nonetheless, immigration has declined as a source of Toronto’s population growth over the last couple of years:

  • The age structure of the population, natural increase (the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a year), and migratory movement in and out of the city are the main determinants of Toronto’s population growth.
  • In the last decade the rate of natural increase has remained relatively flat, but net migration has been more variable, mostly due to swings in interprovincial migration and international immigration.
  • Immigration as a share of Toronto’s population has been high and one of the main sources of its growth. Its share as a source of population growth declined, however, by 19% from 2011 to 2013.[36]

 

Demo-ComponentsTorontoPopulationChange

Components of Toronto’s Population Change, 2002-2013[37]

 

  • From July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, the population of the Region grew by 89,385 people, due to:
    • a net gain of 79,528 people from international migration,
    • a net loss of 4,562 people to interprovincial migration,
    • a net loss of 21,095 people from intraprovincial migration, and
    • a natural increase of 35,514 people.[38]

 

Despite immigration, a growing percentage of the city speaks only one of Canada’s official languages:

  • As of the 2011 NHS, 87.9% of Toronto’s population spoke English only, up from 87.4% in the 2006 Census and 85.7% in the 2001 Census.
  • Only 0.1% of Toronto’s population spoke French in 2011 (the same percentage as in 2001).
  • 7.7% had knowledge of both official languages in 2011, a decline from 8.5% in 2001.[39]

 

Can the city keep up with the demands on infrastructure and services, and create a sustainable urban core?

 

The population in Toronto’s downtown core grew dramatically in the five years before the last census:

  • The population growth rate in downtown Toronto more than tripled between 2006 and 2011 compared with the three previous census periods, as the children of baby boomers—the echo boomers—sought access to jobs, transit, and downtown attractions over housing size and space (and a long commute) in the suburbs. The downtown core also outpaced growth in the suburbs for the first time since the early ’70s. Suburban population growth dropped from 18.6% to 13.7% over five years, as downtown growth went from 4.6% to 16.2% over the same period.
    • In 2011, nearly half (47%) of the downtown population was between 20 and 39 years old (compared to 25.8% across the GTA suburbs of York, Peel, Halton and Durham). The median age in the city core has dropped to the mid-30s.[40]

 

In major cities across North America, millennials are contributing to urban renewal but overwhelming transit infrastructure with their desire to work and live downtown:

  • A report from global commercial real-estate firm Cushman & Wakefield examines the consequences to public transit and gridlock of rapid population growth in 10 major North American urban centres (Atlanta, Washington D.C., Miami, Mexico City, Boston, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, and Toronto).
  • Millennials (born between early 1980s and 1990s) have fueled an explosion of living and work space development in downtown cores across North America, including here in Toronto.[41]
  • Empty nesters are also attracted to urban living.
    • Over 46,000 high-rise condominium units were under construction at the time of the report’s projectingrelease in fall 2014. Companies are following the workers; 4.5 million ft2 of office space was built between 2009 and 2011, and 5.1 million ft2 were estimated to go up between 2014 and 2017. [42]

 

The migration of workers and residents into the core has increased commuter congestion:

  • City governments, developers, and businesses must work to reduce commute times if growth is to be sustainable. However, critical transit improvements are hindered by red tape, impact studies, NIMBYism, and a lack of funding.[43]
  • Progress on congestion in the GTA has been plagued by a lack of governmental consensus on how to fund the Big Move plan (currently only $16B of the required $50B has been raised since the plan’s inception in 2008) and by debates over subways versus LRT lines in the city of Toronto.[44]

 

Cities across Canada have been affected by the cancellation of the mandatory long-form census questionnaire and move to a short-form census and voluntary National Household Survey (NHS):

  • The Federation of Canadian Municipalities says the loss of information is hindering local governments’ abilities to effectively understand, monitor, and plan for the changing needs of communities.
  • Toronto’s manager of social research says the change has also increased planning costs.
    • Staff resources and money must now be spent to source and purchase supplementary sources of data.
    • Extra staff hours are also going into checking whether data from disparate sources is comparable over time like data from the long-form censuses was.
  • Toronto’s most vulnerable residents will pay the biggest price, though, as the loss of the census data makes it difficult to determine which communities are most in need of services and long-term investment.[45]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsThe International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has released the first standardised set of indicators for cities. ISO 37120 will allow cities to measure indicators such as energy, environment, finance, recreation, telecommunications and innovation, and more against other global cities:

  • The standardized measurements will allow for learning across cities and more innovation in city decision-making and global benchmarking.[46]

 

The Toronto-based World Council on City Data (WCCD) hosts a network of innovative cities committed to improving city services and quality of life with globally standardized city data and provides a consistent and comprehensive platform for standardized urban metrics:

Ideas-and-Innovations

  • Comparable city data is critical for building more sustainable, resilient, smart, prosperous and inclusive cities. As a global leader on standardized metrics, the WCCD is operationalising ISO 37120 Sustainable Development of Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life, the first international standard for sustainable and resilient cities.
  • The WCCD has also developed the first ISO 37120 certification system and the Global Cities Registry™. In May 2015 the WCCD Open City Data Portal was launched. This innovative and highly visual tool allows for comparative analytics across the WCCD cities, while fostering global learning and the creation of data-driven solutions for cities.

 


 

[1] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G].” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[2] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Age Group limited to “15 to 19 years” and “20 to 24 years.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[3] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Age Group limited to “65 to 69 years,” “70 to 74 years,” “75 to 79 years,” “80 to 84 years,” “85 to 89 years” and “90 years and over.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[4] Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2015). Facts and figures 2014: Immigration Overview: Permanent residents. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/2014-Facts-Permanent.pdf.

[5] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G].” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[6] Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2012). Seniors Housing Report Ontario. Last accessed July 21, 2015, from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/esub/65981/65981_2012_A01.pdf.

[7] Toronto Region Board of Trade. (2014). Closing the Prosperity Gap: Solutions for a More Liveable City Region. Last accessed July 4, 2015 from: http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/document.doc?id=253.

[8]  City of Toronto Backgrounder. (2012). 2011 Census: Population and Dwelling Counts. http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/2011census-backgrounder.pdf.

[9] NVS Table  XI-1-b: Post-Censal Estimates of Population in Vital Signs Communities on July 1, 1996, and 2000-2014.

[10] City of Toronto, Economic Development and Culture. (2014). Economic Indicators July 2015. Last accessed September 17, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf.

[11] Government of Ontario, Ministry of Finance. (2013). Greater Toronto Area and its census divisions, population by five-year age group, 2013–2041 — reference scenario. Last accessed July 21, 2015, from: http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/projections/table10.html.

[12] http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/document.doc?id=253.

[13] NVS Table  XI-1-b: Post-Censal Estimates of Population in Vital Signs Communities on July 1, 1996, and 2000-2014.

[14] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G].” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[15] United Nations, Economic and Social Affairs. (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: the 2014 Revision, Highlights. Last accessed September 11, 2015 from: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf.

[16] Federation of Canadian Municipalities. (2013). Canada’s Aging Population: The Municipal Role in Canada’s Demographic Shift. Last accessed June 25, 2015, from http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/FCM/canadas_aging_population_the_municipal_role_in_Canadas_demographic_shift_en.pdf.

[17] Federation of Canadian Municipalities. (2013). Canada’s Aging Population: The Municipal Role in Canada’s Demographic Shift. Last accessed July 19, 2015, from http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/FCM/canadas_aging_population_the_municipal_role_in_Canadas_demographic_shift_en.pdf; CMHC Housing Market Information. (2012). Seniors, Housing Report: Ontario. Last accessed July 19, 2015, from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/esub/65981/65981_2012_A01.pdf; City of Toronto. (2013). Toronto Seniors Strategy 2013: Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed August 4, 2013, from http://www.toronto.ca/seniors/strategy.htm.

[18] Ontario Long Term Care Association. (2015). Building resident-centered long-term care, now and for the Future. Pre-Budget Submission to the Ontario Government 2015/2016. http://www.oltca.com/oltca/Documents/Reports/PreBudgetSubmission2015-2016.pdf.

[19] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Age Group limited to “65 to 69 years,” “70 to 74 years,” “75 to 79 years,” “80 to 84 years,” “85 to 89 years” and “90 years and over.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[20]  Senior Strategy report. http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[21] NVS Table XI-3-b: Share of Elderly (65 and over) in Population in Vital Signs Communities on July 1st, 2000–2014.

[22] City of Toronto. (2014).  The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[23]City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[24]City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[25] City of Toronto. (2012). Census Backgrounder: 2011 Census:  Age and Sex Counts  Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/censusbackgrounder_ageandsex_2011.pdf.

[26] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Age Group limited to “15 to 19 years” and “20 to 24 years.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=. Note: This Report occasionally uses data from the Statistics Canada 2011 National Household Survey (NHS). The NHS excludes a portion of the 2006 (and earlier) census population and data were collected in a voluntary survey, making the results vulnerable to non-response bias. As a result, NHS data cannot be compared reliably with those from earlier Census releases. Comparisons with previous census periods should be considered with caution.

[27] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 109-5345. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Age Group limited to “1 to 4 years,” “5 to 9 years,” and “10 to 14 years.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095345&pattern=&csid=.

[28] NVS Table XI-2-b: Share of Youth (Under 15) in Population in Vital Signs Communities on July 1st, 2001–2014.

[29] City of Toronto. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Immigration, Citizenship, Place of Birth, Ethnicity, Visible Minorities,

Religion and Aboriginal Peoples. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/nhs_backgrounder.pdf.

[30] Citizenship and Immigration. (2014). Preliminary Tables: Temporary and Permanent Residents, 2013. Last accessed on July 24, 2014, from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2013-preliminary/02.asp.

[31] Government of Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2013). Facts and figures 2013 – Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2013/permanent/11.asp;Also see: City of Toronto. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Labour Force, Education, Place of Work, Commuting and Mobility Backgrounder. https://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/nhs-backgrounder-labour-education-work-commuting.pdf.

[32] City of Toronto Backgrounder. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Immigration, Citizenship, Place of Birth, Ethnicity, Visible Minorities, Religion and Aboriginal Peoples. Last accessed September 1, 2014, from http://www.toronto.ca/demographics/pdf/nhs_backgrounder.pdf. Note: This Report occasionally uses data from the Statistics Canada 2011 National Household Survey (NHS). The NHS excludes a portion of the 2006 (and earlier) census population and data were collected in a voluntary survey, making the results vulnerable to non-response bias. As a result, NHS data cannot be compared reliably with those from earlier Census releases. Comparisons with previous census periods should be considered with caution.

[33] Citizenship and Immigration. (2014). Preliminary tables—Permanent and temporary residents, 2013; Canada—Permanent residents by province or territory and urban area, 2009-2013. Last accessed September 1, 2014, from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2013/permanent/11.asp.

[34] CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. (2013). Working Paper Series. Delineating Ethnoburbs in Metropolitan Toronto. Last accessed on September 22, 2015 from: http://www.torontolip.com/Portals/0/Resources/General/Delineating%20Ethnoburbs%20in%20Metropolitan%20Toronto.pdf..

[35] CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. (2013). Working Paper Series. Delineating Ethnoburbs in Metropolitan Toronto. Last accessed on September 22, 2015 from: http://www.torontolip.com/Portals/0/Resources/General/Delineating%20Ethnoburbs%20in%20Metropolitan%20Toronto.pdf..

[36] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (2014). Local Labour Market Update 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/Labour_Market_Update.pdf.

[37] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (2014). Local Labour Market Update 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/Labour_Market_Update.pdf.

[38] NVS Table VI-1-c: Migration and Components of Population.

[39] NVS Table II-7: Proportion of Population with Knowledge of Official Languages.

[40] TD Economics. (2013). Observation. Toronto—A Return to the Core. Last accessed September 1, 2014, from http://www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/ff0113_toronto.pdf.

[41] Metro News. (October 7, 2014). Front page. Downtown Desires Strangling Transit, Says 10-City Study.

[42] Cushman & Wakefield. (Fall 2014). Urban Development: Faster Greener Commutes Key to Sustained City Growth. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/reports/corporate/Global%20Reports/CW_North%20American%20Transit%20Report%20Fall%202014.pdf.

[43] Metro News. (October 7, 2014). Front page. Downtown Desires Strangling Transit, Says 10-City Study.

[44] Cushman & Wakefield. (Fall 2014). Urban Development: Faster Greener Commutes Key to Sustained City Growth. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/reports/corporate/Global%20Reports/CW_North%20American%20Transit%20Report%20Fall%202014.pdf.

[45] Tavia Grant and Elizabeth Church. The Globe and Mail. (February 2015). Cities to weigh loss of long-form census for community planning. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com//news/national/canadian-cities-to-weigh-loss-of-long-form-census-for-community-planning/article22774033/?cmpid=rss1&click=sf_globe.

[46] International Standards Organization. (May 14, 2015). How does your city compare to others? New ISO standard to measure up. Last accessed August 25, 2015, from http://www.iso.org/iso/news.htm?refid=Ref1848.