Safety

Why is this important?

The city can prosper only if its residents feel safe in their neighbourhoods, engage with one another, and trust their institutions. The majority of Torontonians do feel safe (almost 80% feel at least somewhat comfortable walking in their community at night).[1] However, tracking indicators like perceptions of safety, as well as violent and non-violent crime, allows us to both test the basis of that confidence, and also to better understand the places and situations where vulnerable residents don’t experience safety.

 

What are the trends?

Toronto continues to be among the safest metropolitan areas in the country. Most indicators of safety confirm a continuing long-term downward trend. Others show little change over time (hate/bias crimes, for example, have averaged approximately 143 a year over the past 10 years). The Region’s youth crime rate continued to decrease. The number of homicides in the city, which rose in 2012 and 2013 after a four-year decline, remained stable in 2014.

 

 

Some Key Trends

Data refer to the city of Toronto unless otherwise noted.

2012 2013 2014
1.    Total Criminal Code offences (per 100,000 population) 130,754 (4,551.1) 122,005 (4,246.6) 108,307 (3,769.8)[2]
2.    Number of known homicides 56 57 57[3]
3.    Crime Severity Index (Toronto Region) 52.1 47.1 44.9[4]
4.    Number of reported sexual assaults per 100,000 population 62.4 59.4 66.8[5]
5.    Violent Crime Severity Index (Toronto Region) 78.4[6] 68.2[7] 63.5[8]

 

 

What’s new?

On many indicators, crime is trending downwards, but some acts of violence are up. Total criminal code offences are down, along with the rate of crime severity. But reported sexual assaults have increased by 12.5% (higher than the provincial and national averages). Incidents of stabbings jumped dramatically in 2014—to 815, a 36% increase from 2013—and stabbing homicide numbers increased by 7.1%, reaching a four-year high of 15. The city is especially not safe for some vulnerable populations. Toronto is a hub for human trafficking, and on any given night, approximately 2,000 homeless youth in this city are vulnerable to being trafficked.

 

Just how safe is Toronto?

 

For the eighth straight year, the Toronto Region had the lowest rate of police-reported crime in 2014 among the 33 Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas:

  • The crime rate in the Region dropped by 3% in 2014 from 2013, to 2,844 per 100,000 population, lower than the national crime rate of 5,046 per 100,000 and much lower, comparatively, than Ottawa (3,424), Montréal (3,728), Calgary (4,205), and Vancouver (7,425).[9] The Region’s crime rate declined by 38% between 2004 and 2014.
    • On the Overall Crime Severity Index, the Region decreased 4% from 2013 (versus a 10% decrease from 2012 to 2013) to 44.9 per 100,000 population, the second lowest score of the large Canadian metros and well below the Canadian average of 66.7. Only Barrie placed lower on the Index (at 43.6). Ottawa (45.3), Calgary (59.9), Montréal (60.2), and Vancouver (96.7) had much higher scores.[10]

 

The rate of violent crime across the Toronto Region declined in 2014 from 2013:

  • Among the 33 metropolitan regions in Canada, there were only three (St. Catharines-Niagara, Ottawa, and Guelph) with a lower violent crime rate in 2014 than the Toronto Region’s rate of 718 violent crimes per 100,000 population (down 3.4% from 749 per 100,000 in 2013). Comparatively, Ottawa had 624 violent crimes per 100,000, Calgary 740, Montreal 882, and Vancouver 962.[11] The Region’s rate is lower than the national (1,039) and provincial (786) rates.[12]
  • On the Violent Crime Severity Index (measuring the seriousness of crimes by the sentences handed down by the courts), the Region is not among the lowest scoring metropolitan areas, at 63.5 per 100,000 persons in 2014 (a 6.8% decrease from 68.2 in 2013) but falls below the Canadian average of 70.2. Comparatively, Ottawa had a score of 49.6, Calgary 63.0, Montréal 72.5, and Vancouver 78.2.[13]
  • The homicide rate (per 100,000 population) in the Region was also lower than it was nationally at 1.38 per 100,000 (versus 1.45 nationally).[14]

 

 


snapshot

 

According to Wellbeing Toronto, the Church-Yonge Corridor and the Bay Street Corridor tied for the highest number of robberies of all Toronto neighbourhoods in 2011 at 124 each.

 


 

The violent crime rate also declined in the city of Toronto in 2014, and the number of homicides in the city remained unchanged from 2013 at 57. But firearm and stabbing homicide numbers and reported sexual assaults increased:

  • In 2014, the violent crime rate in Toronto was at 987 per 100,000 population, a decrease of 1.8% from the 2013 rate.[15]
  • Firearm homicides in 2014 increased by 22.7% over the previous year to 27 from 22 in 2013, but were still lower than in 2012 and 2011, when there were 33 and 28 respectively.
  • Stabbing homicide numbers, meanwhile, increased by 7.1%, reaching 15 in 2014, a four year high, compared to 14 in 2013 (there were 9 stabbing homicides in 2012 and 7 in 2011).[16]
  • In 2014, Toronto’s reported sexual assault rate was 66.8 per 100,000 population, an increase of 12.5% over 2013 and higher than the provincial (55.7 per 100,000 population, and national (58.5) averages.[17]

Ideas-and-InnovationsThe New York Police Department has introduced an additional two female plain clothes officers into each public transit squad to help fight sexual assaults:

  • The hope is that having more presence will not only help victims (who are mostly female) give statements right away, but it will also lead to more perpetrators being apprehended (incidents of sexual assault often go unreported).[18]

globalDespite a long-term declining trend in violent crimes in Toronto, the homicide rate in other global cities such as London fares much better, while the rates of other cities more than triple that of Toronto:

  • As reported to the World Council on City Data (WCCD) in 2014, the number of homicides per 100,000 in the city of Toronto was 2.13, while in London it was just 1.32. Los Angeles, Melbourne, and Boston, however, all reported rates much higher than Toronto, at 6.69, 6.87, and 9.25 respectively.[19]

 

safety-numberofhomicidesper100000

Number of Homicides per 100,000 Population, as Reported to the WCCD in 2014[20]

 

 

Incidents of stabbings in Toronto jumped dramatically in 2014 (according to numbers obtained by CBC News), although all crimes involving knives increased only slightly:

  • A Freedom of Information request has revealed that there were 815 stabbings in Toronto in 2014—a 36% increase from the 599 in 2013.
  • Although the increase in stabbings is significant, the number of overall crimes involving knives (such as using a knife as a threat) increased only slightly (from 1,391 in 2013 to 1,438 in 2014).
  • Incidents involving knives were down 25% by the end of January 2015.[21]

stabbingsin2013v2014

Stabbings in 2013 vs. 2014[22]

safety-stabbingsvsshootings2014

Stabbings vs. Shootings, 2014:[23]

The Region’s youth crime rate continues to decrease:

  • In 2013, the youth crime rate (total charged per 100,000 youths) in the Region was 1,496 per 100,000, down 15.4% from 2012 (when it was 1,769 per 100,000) and 38.9% lower than the national average (2,447 per 100,000) and 21.8% lower than the provincial average (1,912 per 100,000).
  • The youth crime rate decreased 44.9% between 2004 and 2013 (from 2,714 per 100,000).[24]

 

How safe are members of minority and other vulnerable populations in the Toronto Region?

 

Hate per bias crimes are up after a drop in 2013:

  • 146 hate per bias crimes were reported to Toronto Police Services’ Hate Crime Unit in 2014, up approximately 11% (from 131) the previous year. Hate per bias crimes have averaged approximately 143 a year over the past 10 years (between 2005 and 2014).
    • The Jewish, LGBTQ* (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning, and the entire spectrum of gender and sexuality outside of heterosexual), and the black communities remain the three most frequently targeted.
    •  In 2014 there were no reported hate crimes motivated by age, language, disability, or “similar factors” (in similar factors occurrences, hatred focuses on members of a group—e.g., a particular ancestry, citizenship, or profession—who have significant points in common and share a trait often integral to their dignity). Stigma may cause under-reporting, however.[25]

Proportion of Reported Hate per Bias Crimes, based on Toronto Police Service Statistics:

by Motive[26]

by Victimized Community[27]

 

 

After years of public consultation, the police practice of “carding” – stopping people arbitrarily to question them, record their personal information, and enter it into an investigative database – is under review in Toronto:

  • In “Known to Police” (a 2013 follow-up to a 2010 series of the same name), the Toronto Star investigated race, policing, and crime and found that 25% of those carded in 2013 were black[28] (the 2011 NHS reported that less than 10% of Torontonians identified as black)[29]. A black person was 17 times more likely than a white person to be carded in the downtown core.[30]
  • In April 2014 the Toronto Police Services (TPS) Board approved a new Community Engagement policy requiring officers to define a specific “public safety purpose” when stopping citizens and to advise them that their participation in the engagement was voluntary.
    • The policy was developed from the 31 recommendations of TPS’ internal review of carding (the Police and Community Engagement Review or PACER, released near the end of 2013). Although the PACER report’s recommendations were approved by Police Chief Bill Blair, he refused to operationalize the new policy.[31]
  • A summer 2014 community-based research project assessing policing in 31 Division found “widespread dissatisfaction” with citizen-police interaction among residents surveyed and a low level of trust in police. 40% of those surveyed felt the relationship between police and the community was poor.
  • In January 2015, under pressure from newly elected Mayor John Tory and the Board, Chief Bill Blair suspended carding.[32]
  • The Police Services Board, activists, lawyers and youth advocates have called for a transparent and educational approach (e., advising citizens of their right to walk away from an engagement) for any new “community engagement” procedures.[33] After much debate, analysis, criticism, and media attention (including an April 2015 Toronto Life cover story by journalist Desmond Cole, who reported having been interrogated by police more than 50 times due to his skin colour[34]), Mayor John Tory has made the following recommendations in a June 2015 report to the Toronto Police Services Board:
  • that the Board support permanently cancelling “carding” (defined here as the random stopping of citizens not engaged in or suspected of criminal activity to gather, record, and retain information);
  • that new Chief Mark Saunders’ decision to continue the suspension of “carding” (after being named Chief in April 2015) be extended indefinitely, or until a new policy is approved and put into practice;
  • that the Board work closely with the Province and submit guiding principles for consideration as it develops new regulations regarding police-community engagements;
  • that the Chair report back to the Board with a draft policy that aligns with any regulatory changes, no later than two months after legislative approval;
  • that the Board work with the Chief, the PACER Advisory Committee, community representatives, the Toronto Police Association, the Senior Officers’ Association, and other stakeholders to establish the new policy; and
  • that the Chief provide the Board information on questions about the historical data, which concern:
    • legal and practical implications for purging historical data, and for purging data not related to any past or pending criminal investigation,
    • the rationale for purging the Master Names Index system on a monthly basis of all “carding” information older than one year and one month prior to 2008,
    • the legal and technical process of transferring all historical information to an independent third-party agency such as the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario (IPC) to keep it secure but not purge it, and
    • the legal, financial and technical implications of developing a system that would allow Service members to apply to search the database, if it were held by an independent third-party, for a “public safety purpose.”[35]

 

The Toronto Star is starting a project to gather as much data on carding as possible through individual and specific-to-police service Freedom of Information Requests:

  • In August 2015, ahead of the provincial hearings on carding in Brampton, the Star released data pertaining to the Region of Peel that was obtained through a freedom of information request:
    • 159,303 “street checks” were conducted between 2009 and 2014, which averages to one check for every 46 Peel residents, each year.
    • For comparison, in Toronto in 2014 there was an average of 1 contact card filled out for every 232 residents, and in 2012, 1 for every 6.5 residents.[36]

 

On any given night in this city, approximately 2,000 homeless youth are vulnerable to being trafficked[37]:

  • Youth homelessness is an escalating concern nation-wide. People under 24 comprise about a third of Canada’s homeless (or approximately 65,000 individuals) and are the fastest-growing segment of the homeless population.[38]

 

Toronto is a hub for human trafficking:

  • Researchers of one study have found that the GTA is the most common destination of human trafficking in Ontario, and that the city of Toronto is a hub for larger inter-provincial and international trafficking routes.
    • 551 cases (for the period between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013) that involved Ontario as a source, transit or destination point were reported to the researchers of a study on the incidence of human trafficking in Ontario.
    • Victims trafficked to, through or from Ontario were mostly young (63% between the ages of 15 and 24; the most common age was 17), female (90%), and Canadian citizens (62.9%).
    • Victims were trafficked predominantly for sexual exploitation (68.5%). Forced labour accounted for 24.5%, while forced marriage and petty crime accounted for 7.7% and 6.3% respectively.
    • 5% of victims experienced some or multiple forms of violence.
    • The four biggest challenges for organizations who work with victims of trafficking were organizational funding (46.9%), lack of housing (46.2%), difficulty providing financial support (42.7%) and difficulty finding counselling (37.1%).
    • The researchers call for urgent investment including a province-wide plan to combat trafficking, a long-term task force to carry it out, funding of shelters, and changes to Ontario’s child welfare laws, specifically to increase the child welfare mandate to 18 years of age, and allow child welfare workers to intervene when third-party offenders are abusing children (other provinces have made both changes).[40]
  • A 2013 report from the City’s Affordable Housing Office acknowledges that Toronto is a known “principle destination” or “transit point” for human trafficking in Canada, and yet, there are no targeted supports like housing for youth subjected to such trauma in Toronto.
    • The report examines established models across North America that assist youths targeted by traffickers with the housing and supports that are critical to their escape and in preventing youth from becoming victims in the first place.[41]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsIn Vancouver, The Servants Anonymous Foundation offers residential programs and services to help youth (ages 16-29) victims of the sex trade and trafficking industry achieve independent living.[42]

 

As the cost of policing grows, how can we measure police staffing efficiency and effectiveness?

 

The cost of policing continues to increase, while crime rates decrease:

  • A Fraser Institute study analysing trends in police resources and crime rates in Canada and the relationship between the two has found that since 1999 police compensation has grown faster than the rate of inflation.
    • The costs of pensions, benefits, and overtime are significant contributors to this.
  • A large proportion of Toronto’s police officers (and those in many other Ontario cities) now make the Province’s “Sunshine List,” which discloses the salaries of public sector employees earning more than $100,000 a year. In 2013, about 37.2% of Toronto’s police force workers (2,983 of 8,000 workers) earned more than $100,000 annually.
  • The Globe and Mail reported in August 2014 that the per capita cost of policing had increased 14% in the past four years, to $387 per resident—twice the rate of inflation.[43]
  • The report estimates the “efficiency” of police staffing across Canadian CMAs using a determinants approach that first estimates the relationship between the number of police officers per 100,000 in population and the crime rate.
    • 23 of 24 CMAs saw a drop in police-reported crime rates between 2001 and 2012 ( John’s saw a 10.1% increase), but the biggest drops were seen in Toronto (to 2,844 per 100,000 population), Winnipeg, and Regina. Toronto had the fourth-lowest 2001 crime rate to begin with.
    • Nonetheless, of the 32 CMAs included in the report, Toronto is ranked 11th most “efficient.” Moncton, Kelowna, and Ottawa-Gatineau place 1st, 2nd, and 3rd respectively.[44]

safety-policereportedcrimerates

Selected Canadian CMAs, 2001 and 2012[45]
Police-Reported Crime Rates: Criminal Code Incidents* Per 100,000 Population

 

*Excludes traffic and drug offences

 

globalToronto has fewer police than many other global cities:

  • As reported to the World Council on City Data (WCCD) in 2014, per 100,000 population there were 201.89 police officers in the city of Toronto, compared to 254.07 in Los Angeles, 332.54 in Boston, 368.38 in London, 446.84 in Melbourne, and 706.00 in Amsterdam.[46]

 

safety-numberofpoliceofficersper100000

Number of Police Officers per 100,000 Population, as Reported to the WCCD in 2014[47]

 

 

globalSafety and law enforcement go hand-in-hand, but more police officers do not always necessarily correspond with less violence:

  • The “Gateway Cities” project of the Institute Without Boundaries at George Brown College evaluated quality of life indicators and data in the New York-Chicago-Toronto gateway to better understand how the regions are faring and how they impact each other.
  • Looking at rate of violent crime, number of police officers, and other factors, the study showed that while Toronto and Chicago are comparable in size in terms of population, in 2012 Chicago employed more than twice the number of police officers, but had the same violent crime to population ratio, and almost 10 times as many homicides as Toronto.
  • New York had a ratio of police officers to population more than double that of Toronto’s in 2012 and experienced close to double (1.8 times) the number of violent crimes.[48]

 

safety-policeandviolentcrime

Police and Violent Crime in New York, Toronto, and Chicago, 2012[49]

 

 

The following groups are addressing issues relating to safety through their innovative community-based programs.

 

Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.

 

Barbra Schlifer Commemorative Clinic – Providing services for women who have experienced violence

Boost Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention – Working to eliminate abuse and violence towards children and youth

CANES Community Care – Assisting seniors to take part in the life of their community

Carefirst Seniors & Community Services Association – Ensuring that Chinese seniors live a quality & enriched life

Cycle Toronto – Advocating for a healthy, safe, cycling-friendly city for all

Family Service Toronto – Strengthening communities through counselling, education, social action and development

The Gatehouse Child Abuse Investigation & Support Site – Building courage and hope in those touched by child abuse

Interval House – Offering safe shelter and responsive services for women and children who have experienced abuse

Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre – Gathering community together in a place focused on social justice

Law in Action Within Schools (LAWS) – Engaging high school students through education in the legal profession

Leave Out Violence (LOVE) – Reducing violence in the lives of Toronto youth

The Massey Centre for Women – Striving to achieve healthy outcomes for all young mothers and families

Mentoring Junior Kids Organization (MJKO) – Promoting healthy and active lifestyles for youth

METRAC – Focusing on education and prevention to build safety, justice and equity

Nellie’s Women’s Shelter – Operating services for women and children who have experienced and are experiencing violence, poverty and homelessness.

North York Women’s Centre (NYWC) – Supporting and empowering women and effect positive change

Ontario Justice Education Network – Promoting public understanding to support a responsive and inclusive justice system

The PACT Urban Peace Program – Empowering underserved youth and youth already in conflict with the law

Parkdale Activity Recreation Centre (PARC) – Working with members of the Parkdale community on issues of poverty and mental health

Peacebuilders International – Using restorative justice peacebuilding circles to help youth manage conflict

San Romanoway Revitalization – Fostering a sense of belonging in residents of all ages and backgrounds

Seeds of Hope Foundation – Building sustainable communities with resource centres that encourage learning, recovery, and enterprise

Springboard – Helping people develop the skills they need to overcome barriers and achieve their full potential

SPRINT Senior Care – Caring for seniors and enabling seniors to care for themselves

St. Paul’s L’Amoreaux Centre – Providing programs and services for seniors and older adults

St. Stephen’s Community House – Programming for newcomer and low-income residents

Street Health Community Nursing Foundation – Improving the wellbeing of homeless and under housed individuals

Teen Legal Helpline – Giving free and confidential online legal advice for youth

UrbanArts – Engaging youth in community development through the arts

White Ribbon – Working to end violence against women and girls by engaging men and boys

 

 

 


 

[1] Ipsos Reid. (2013) Walking Habits and Attitudes Report: City of Toronto. Last accessed July 22, 2015, from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Transportation%20Services/Walking/Files/pdf/2013-04-24-cot-walking-habits-and-attitudes.pdf.

[2] Toronto Police Service. (2015). Special Request.

[3] Toronto Police Service. (2015). TPS Crime Statistics. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/statistics/ytd_stats.php.

[4] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2015). Juristat: Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 23, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[5] NVS Table II-9: Total Sexual Assaults per 100,000 People, Toronto (municipal).

[6] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2013). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2012. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11854-eng.pdf.

[7] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2014). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2013. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14040-eng.pdf.

[8] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[9] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[10] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[11] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[12] NVS Table II-1: Total Violent Criminal Code Violations per 100,000 Persons.

[13] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[14] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[15] NVS Table II-1: Total Violent Criminal Code Violations per 100,000 Persons.

[16] Toronto Police Service. (2015). TPS Crime Statistics. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/statistics/ytd_stats.php.

[17] NVS Table II-9: Total Sexual Assaults per 100,000 People.

[18] Rebecca Harshbarger. AMNewYork. (July 20, 2015). Undercover female cops fighting rise in transit sex crimes: NYPD. Last accessed August 26, 2015, from http://www.amny.com/transit/sex-crimes-in-nyc-subways-on-the-rise-nypd-1.10661849.

[19] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2014). Last accessed August 25, 2015, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[20] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2014). Last accessed August 25, 2015, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[21] CBC News. (2015). Stabbings up 36% in Toronto last year. Last accessed September 20, 2015 frm: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/stabbings-up-36-in-toronto-last-year-1.2920828.

[22] CBC News. (2015). Stabbings up 36% in Toronto last year. Last accessed September 20, 2015 frm: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/stabbings-up-36-in-toronto-last-year-1.2920828.

[23] CBC News. (2015). Stabbings up 36% in Toronto last year. Last accessed September 20, 2015 frm: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/stabbings-up-36-in-toronto-last-year-1.2920828.

[24] NVS Table VI-6: Youth Crime Rate (Total Charged per 100,000 Youths).

[25] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Unit. (2014). Annual Hate/Bias Crime Statistical Report 2014.  http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2014hatecrimereport.pdf.

[26] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Unit. (2014). Annual Hate/Bias Crime Statistical Report 2014.  http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2014hatecrimereport.pdf.

[27] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Unit. (2014). Annual Hate/Bias Crime Statistical Report 2014.  http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2014hatecrimereport.pdf.

[28] Desmond Cole. Toronto Life. (April 21, 2015). The Skin I’m In: I’ve been interrogated by police more than 50 times—all because I’m black. Last accessed May 1, 2015 from: http://www.torontolife.com/informer/features/2015/04/21/skin-im-ive-interrogated-police-50-times-im-black/.

[29] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (2013). Toronto, C, Ontario (Code 3520005) (table). National Household Survey (NHS) Profile. 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE. Ottawa. Released September 11, 2013. Last accessed September 18, 2015 from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E.

[30] Desmond Cole. Toronto Life. (April 21, 2015). The Skin I’m In: I’ve been interrogated by police more than 50 times—all because I’m black. http://www.torontolife.com/informer/features/2015/04/21/skin-im-ive-interrogated-police-50-times-im-black/.

[31] Idil Burale, Spacing Magazine. (April 15, 2015). What we don’t talk about when we talk about carding. Last accessed June 1, 2015 from: http://spacing.ca/toronto/2015/04/15/burale-dont-talk-talk-carding/.

[32] Patty Winsa and Jim Rankin, Toronto Star. (2015). Toronto Police Chief Bill Blair suspends controversial practice of carding. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from:

http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2015/01/06/toronto_police_chief_bill_blair_suspends_controversial_practice_of_carding.html.

[33] Jim Rankin and Patty Winsa, Toronto Star. (March 27, 2015). New procedures for “carding” walk back police board demands for transparency. http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/03/27/new-procedures-for-carding-walk-back-police-board-demands-for-transparency.html.

[34] Desmond Cole. Toronto Life. (April 21, 2015). The Skin I’m In: I’ve been interrogated by police more than 50 times—all because I’m black. http://www.torontolife.com/informer/features/2015/04/21/skin-im-ive-interrogated-police-50-times-im-black/.

[35] Toronto Police Service. (2013). The Police and Community Engagement Review (PACER Report) Phase Two. Last accessed August 26, 2015, from http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2013pacerreport.pdf.

[36] San Grewal. TorontoStar. (August 24, 2015). Peel police conducted 159,303 street checks in six years. Last accessed August 26, 2015, from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/08/24/peel-police-conducted-159303-street-checks-in-six-years.html.

[37] City of Toronto. (2013). Creating housing for youth victims of human trafficking. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Affordable%20Housing%20Office/Shared%20Content/pdf/A1304874_YouthHumanTrafficReport_FINAL.pdf.

[38] Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and Children’s Aid Society of Toronto. (November 22, 2014). Hidden in our Midst: Homeless Newcomer Youth in Toronto – Uncovering the Supports to Prevent and Reduce Homelessness. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from: http://www.camh.ca/en/research/news_and_publications/reports_and_books/Documents/Hidden%20in%20Our%20Midst%20Final%20Report_Nov%202014.pdf

[39] NVS Table II-11-a: Women and Youth Shelters and Beds, 2009–2013.

[40] Alliance Against Modern Slavery. (2014). The Incidence of Human Trafficking in Ontario. Last accessed July 19, 2015, from http://www.allianceagainstmodernslavery.org/sites/default/files/AAMS-ResearchData.pdf; Toronto Star. (2014). Toronto a ‘hub’ for human trafficking, report says. Last accessed July 19, 2015, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-a-hub-for-human-trafficking-report-says-1.2675941.

[41] City of Toronto. (2013). Creating housing for youth victims of human trafficking. http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Affordable%20Housing%20Office/Shared%20Content/pdf/A1304874_YouthHumanTrafficReport_FINAL.pdf.

[42] R. Augustyn. City of Toronto, Affordable Housing Office. http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Affordable%20Housing%20Office/Shared%20Content/pdf/A1304874_YouthHumanTrafficReport_FINAL.pdf.

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