Work

collage-healthWhy is this important?

Toronto does a great job educating and creating skilled residents, and attracting talented, eager (and needed) workers from around the globe. But lack of decent employment prospects for many, especially young workers and recent immigrants, exacts a high toll. For the city, this means lost opportunities to benefit from this talent and commitment, and individuals and families experience a myriad of economic, health, and social costs while trying to make ends meet.

 

What are the trends?

The unemployment rate remains above pre-recession levels (7.5% in 2008), and grew to 9.5% in 2014 after improvement in 2013. The average monthly number of Employment Insurance beneficiaries continued its downward trend, but does not reflect those who have given up actively looking for work or who are ineligible due to the narrowing of EI criteria. While it is no longer the case that unemployment rates are higher among landed immigrants than among the Canadian-born population, unemployment remains a more likely prospect for recent immigrants. Toronto’s youth, particularly those in Canada less than five years, continue to face troubling long-term trends.

 

 

Data refer to the city of Toronto unless otherwise noted 2012 2013 2014
1.    Unemployment rate (annual average) 9.6% 8.8% 9.5%[1]
2.    Youth (15-24 year-olds) unemployment rate (annual average) 20.4% 18.1% 21.65%[2]
3.    Recent immigrant youth (15-24 year-olds in Canada less than 5 years) unemployment rate (annual average) 31.4% 28.1% 24.1%[3]
4.    Median hourly wage (unadjusted) (Toronto Region) $20.88 $21.00 $21.08[4]
5.    Number of new business establishments 3,400[5] 4,340[6] 5,030[7]

 

 

What’s new?

Ontario’s minimum wage will increase for the second time in five years to $11.25 per hour, the second highest in Canada. But precarious employment continues to rise and take a toll on workers. Temporary employment increased by 17% in the city between 2011 and 2014, and less than half of GTHA workers have permanent, full-time employment with benefits. Meanwhile, some youth face more barriers to employment, education, and training than others, including those living in poverty. The City is developing an action plan for youth employment focused on work-based learning, especially for youth recipients of Ontario Works. A new community-based research project documents the resilience of Toronto’s entrepreneurial newcomers during the 2008 global recession, but cautions against self-employment being seen as the “new social safety net.”

 

Where is job growth happening in Toronto, and what kinds of jobs are being created?

Toronto’s overall employment in 2014 was up by 1.5% from 2013, with 20,850 jobs added:

  • Toronto’s total employment in 2014 was 10.26% higher than a decade earlier, with 1,384,390 jobs compared to 1,255,600 in 2004.
  • Of the 1,384,390 jobs counted in Toronto in 2014, 1,063,540 (76.8%) were full time and 320,860 (23.2%) part time.
    • Part-time jobs increased by 1.7% over 2013.[8]
  • The median hourly wage in Toronto in May 2015 for all professions was $20.77 (versus $20.67 a year earlier).[9]
  • Across the Region, both median and average hourly earnings were greater in 2014 (in current dollars, $21.08 and $24.90 respectively) than they were in 2013. Average hourly earnings in 2014 were above both the national and provincial rates, while median hourly earnings were above the national rate but below the provincial rate.
    • The median hourly wage has increased slightly but steadily over the past five years: $20.10 in 2010, $20.60 in 2011, $20.88 in 2012, $21.00 in 2013, and $21.08 in 2014.[10]

 

 


snapshot
According to Wellbeing Toronto, in 2011 the Bay Street Corridor had the most with 185,891 jobs while  the bottom three were Woodbine – Lumsden (558), Rustic (550), and Lambton Baby Point (438).

 


 

 

5,030 new businesses were established in the city in 2014, providing possible places of employment:

  • Almost 16% more businesses opened in Toronto in 2014 than in 2013 (5,030 versus 4,340).[11]

 

The office sector remains the largest in Toronto, accounting for almost 1 of every 2 jobs:

  • The City of Toronto’s annual Employment Survey reports on which sectors grew or flourished.
    • The institutional sector was the fastest growing in 2014, adding 11,010 jobs (an increase of 4.9%).
    • The service sector was next with 3.7% growth, followed by the “other” (+2.7%) and office (+1.0%) sectors.
    • Other sectors shrank: manufacturing lost 1.3% of its jobs, and the retail sector followed with a loss of 1.5% of jobs.[12]
  • The survey also examined the city’s major economic sectors (as defined by the North American Industry Classification System or NAICS) for employment growth or loss over 2014.
    • The largest gains—7.6% over the previous year—were seen in the real estate and rental and leasing sector, which added 2,710 jobs, and in the construction sector, which added 2,610 jobs.
    • The accommodation and food services sector also experienced a significant rate of growth, 4.7%.[13]
    • The administrative and support, waste management and remediation services sector, on the other hand, experienced the largest net loss of 3,600 jobs (a loss of 5.8%).[14]

 

Employment in Toronto’s downtown in 2014 increased by 3.2% or 14,890 jobs. Its growth over five years (2009-2014) was 14.8%, or 62,250 jobs:

  • Employment growth between 2013 and 2014 in the city’s several dense employment centres was greatest in Etobicoke Centre, at 7.9%.
  • Other centres saw negative growth: Yonge-Eglinton, -3.8%; Scarborough Centre, ‑2.5%; and North York Centre, -1.5%. In the rest of the city, jobs grew by 0.9%.
    • Although the Centres shrank by 1.3% or 1,010 jobs in the last year, they have grown considerably over the last five, increasing by 7.3% or 5,430 jobs.[15]

work-EmploymentChangeinDowntownandCentres

Employment Change in Downtown and Centres, 2009-2014[16]

projecting
Job growth in the Toronto Region is forecast to increase from 0.3% in 2014 to 1.5% in 2015 and 1.7% in 2016:

  • This growth will be led by retail and wholesale trade, professional, scientific and managerial services, and health services.
  • Growth will be much more slow in the finance-insurance-real estate and construction industries.[17]

 

Who is working in Toronto and who isn’t?

The unemployment rate in the city of Toronto remains high, and grew in 2014:

  • Toronto’s unemployment rate was 9.5% in 2014, up from 8.8% in 2013 (but down slightly from 9.6% in 2012).[18]
  • As shown in the graph below, Toronto’s unemployment has historically tracked higher (for the most part) than for, the rest of Ontario, and the rest of Canada:[19]

 

City of Toronto Unemployment Rate: January 2008-January 2015[20]

  • The average monthly number of Employment Insurance beneficiaries continued its downward trend, with 24,549 in 2014, down from 26,469 in 2013 and 26,998 in 2012.[21] It should be noted, however, that the declining number of EI beneficiaries does not reflect the number of people who have given up actively looking for work, or those who are now ineligible due to the narrowing of EI qualifications.

work-employmentinsurancebeneficiariesEmployment Insurance Beneficiaries, Monthly Averages, City of Toronto, 2012, 2013, 2014[22]

How are young workers, immigrants, and women affected by workforce trends in Toronto?

 

When it comes to employment, Toronto’s youth face troubling long-term trends:

  • After dropping to 18.12% in 2013, the Toronto youth unemployment rate in 2014 climbed again, reaching a staggering 65%.[23]

 

work-youthaged1524unemploymentinthecity

Youth (Aged 15-24) Unemployment in the City of Toronto, 1990-2014[24]

Source: Prepared from Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (2013) -Special Tabulation, provided by the City of Toronto, Economic Development and Culture Division.

work-youthaged1524unemploymentinTOandacrossCanada

Youth (Aged 15–24) Unemployment in Toronto and Across Canada, 2006 and 2013[25]

 

Note: Percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole per cent.

 

 Many youth are not employed, nor in education or training, and the roots of this trend are complex:

  • About 10% of youth ages 15-24 in the GTHA, or as many as 83,000 people, were Not in Education, Employment or Training (or NEET, a Statistics Canada category) in 2011.[26]
    • Many groups are over-represented in this category, including racialized and newcomer youth, aboriginal youth, youth living in poverty or in conflict with the law, youth in and leaving care, LGBTQ* youth, and youth with disabilities and special needs.
    • Through extensive consultations with youth on the subject, CivicAction produced a 2014 report that identified common barriers facing this group of youth as well as opportunities to help close the gap between youth who are NEET and those who aren’t. Four common barriers identified as facing NEET youth were:
      • systemic barriers that lead to weakened social networks, such as few mentors or role models;
      • lack of opportunities to gain meaningful work-related experience;
      • lack of accessible and affordable transportation; and
      • racism and structural discrimination.[27]
    • As of 2009, Canada had the second-lowest total NEET percentage (13.3%) of 15- to 19-year-olds among selected OECD countries. Germany had the lowest at 11.6%, France and the UK tied with 15.6%, the US had 16.9% and Italy 21.2%.[28]

 

The City is developing an action plan for youth employment to connect unemployed youth with jobs and work-based learning opportunities:

  • An Economic Development Committee report sets out recommendations and directions for implementing a Youth Employment Action Plan for Toronto. It focuses on short-term actions that leverage the City’s role as an employer, capitalize on existing connections with employer and sector partners, and increase support to youth job seekers. For example,
    • In 2015, about 1,000 youth from Neighbourhood Improvement Areas were helped to apply for summer jobs with the City.
    • The Partnership to Advance Youth Employment, a joint initiative between private sector employers and the City, has connected hundreds of young people to job opportunities with employer partners since 2009.
    • The Toronto Youth Jobs Corps program, coordinated by Social Development, Finance and Administration and delivered by three community agencies, provides youth with a full-time, 21-week, paid employment preparation program.
  • The City is also aiming to support Toronto’s youth who are the most distant from the labour market—those on social assistance. A significant percentage of Toronto’s youth (15-29) population (approximately 6%) and of the caseload of Toronto Employment and Social Services (TESS) (24%) are youth recipients of Ontario Works. TESS serves approximately 33,000 youth through Ontario Works. Administrative data from TESS provide an interesting profile of these youth:
    • almost half are 21 or younger,
    • 54% are female,
    • approximately 60% have less than high-school education, and
    • more than one-third have been receiving assistance for three years or longer.[29]
  • The report notes the importance of work-based learning (WBL) in successful responses to youth unemployment.
    • In WBL, learning takes place in a real work environment and through practice, and ranges from shorter and less formal activities up to more intensive internships and apprenticeships. The City reports that WBL benefits both youth and employers by boosting hard and soft skills, instilling positive work habits in youth, and by addressing the skills gaps and recruitment troubles felt by employers.[30]

 

Unemployment in the Toronto Region remains a more likely prospect for recent immigrants than for Canadian-born workers:

  • As of June 2015, 48.4% of workers in the Toronto Region (some 1,659,900 people) were landed immigrants, while 4% (1,694,000 people) were Canadian-born.
  • The unemployment rate (for workers aged 15 and over) for landed immigrants in the Region was 9% in June 2014, vs 7.3% for those born in Canada.
  • Recent immigrants were more likely to be unemployed than established immigrants:
    • Recent immigrants (those entering the country within the previous five years) faced a 12.9% unemployment rate, while those in Canada 10 years or more fared better at 5.4%.[31]
  • In the city of Toronto, the unemployment rate for those 15 and over born in Canada was 9.0% in 2014 (up from 7.9% in 2013), while for recent immigrants (entered Canada within the last five years) it was 16.2% (up from 15.6% in 2013 and 14.9% in 2012). Immigrants who had been in the country longer, between five and 10 years, fared slightly better, with a 12.9% unemployment rate (up from 11.1% in 2013 and 9.7% in 2012).
    • Recent immigrant youth (15-24 years old) also faced higher unemployment rates (24.1% in 2014, down from 28.1% in 2013) than Canadian-born youth (21.5%, up from 16.4% in 2013).[32]

Ideas-and-Innovations

During the 2008 global recession, Toronto’s newcomers showed their resilience by developing small businesses. But inequities exist based on race, gender, and immigration status:

  • In 2012, Newcomer Women’s Services Toronto and Social Planning Toronto collaborated on the Economy And Resilience of Newcomers (EARN), a community-based research project that examined how newcomer entrepreneurs (in Canada 10 years or less) fared throughout the recent recession.
  • Many personal and economic “push” and “pull” factors influence newcomers to pursue entrepreneurship, including barriers to accessing the Canadian labour market such as
    • difficulty having foreign professional and educational credentials recognized,
    • language barriers or perceived “accent” problems,
    • employers demanding previous Canadian work experience,
    • lack of networks and contacts in their field, and
    • discrimination, both overt and covert.[33]

 work-examplesofpushandpullfactors

Examples of “Push” and “Pull” Factors in Newcomer Self-Employment[34]

 

  • Although they have lower rates of self-employment as their main work activity than established immigrants and Canadian-born residents, Toronto’s newcomers, especially couples with children, were more likely to report self-employment income on their 2010 personal tax return.
  • Most newcomers with self-employment income came to Canada under Family Class and Skilled Worker Class immigration categories rather than the self-employment, entrepreneur, or investor categories.[35]

work-percentageofselfemployedpopulationinTO

 

Percentage of Self-Employed Population in Toronto by Immigration Status, 2006-2012[36]

 

 

work-torontoresidentsreportingselfemploymentincome

Toronto Residents Reporting Self-Employment Income, 2010 Tax Return[37]

  • Newcomer men are more likely to be self-employed than newcomer women (their self-employment rates were 15% and 9% respectively in 2012, 17% versus 9% in 2011, and 17% versus 8% in 2010).
  • The report cautions that self-employment has come to be seen as the “new social safety net,” an overly simplistic answer to systemic issues such as precarious employment and labour market obstacles rather than a choice.
    • Between October 2008 and October 2009, self-employment increased 3.9% while the private and public sectors decreased 4.1% and 1.6% respectively.
    • Toronto has had higher rates of self-employment since 2007 than Ontario and Canada.
    • The report recommends programs and services to support newcomers’ economic development and labour market access.
  • Newcomer self-employment rates were down slightly in 2012 (11.9% versus 13.6% in 2011).[38]

 

Is Toronto’s diversity reflected in its entrepreneurship?

 

The annual venture client survey from MaRS Discovery District provides insights about a sample of entrepreneurs, mostly from the GTA—who they are, the kinds of tech companies they start, their funding ecosystem, and who is making money and creating jobs:

  • Its 2014 survey of 680 ventures shows that founder experience and background continue to be very diverse in Toronto.
  • “Repeat” entrepreneurs are common. Based on responses received from 586 founders, 67% of them reported that they were working on their second or third venture.

 

work-repeatentreneurshipMaRS

Repeat Entrepreneurship, MaRs Discovery District Clients, 2014[39]

 

  • While the number of startups with female executives continues to grow, there is still a long way to go to achieve gender parity. Based on responses received from 618 founders, only 23% of their ventures have at least one female founder.

work-gendersoffoundersMaRs

Gender of Founders, MaRs Discovery District Clients, 2014[40]

 

  • In terms of the nationality of venture founders, based on responses received from 596 founders, the majority of ventures are led by either all-Canadian or a Canadian/foreign-born mix of founders. Only 27% of the ventures were founded exclusively by foreign-born entrepreneurs.

 

Nationality of Founders, MaRs Discovery District Clients, 2014[41]

  • Age continues to play a large role in the startup landscape, with older, more experienced founders leading the majority of ventures. Based on feedback received from 604 founders, 75% of ventures did not include youth founders (those under the age of 30).[42]

work-youthfoundersMaRsYouth Founders, MaRs Discovery District Clients, 2014[43]

 

 

How are Toronto’s vulnerable workers faring in an environment of increasingly precarious work?

 

Less than half of the GTHA’s workers enjoy the security of the “standard employment relationship” of permanent full-time employment with benefits:

  • Almost half (47%) of respondents in a recent Deloitte poll of Canadian firms planned to increase their use of “contingent, outsourced, contract or part-time” workers in the next three to five years. While the strategy allows firms to scale up or down as business needs fluctuate, such precarious employment is taking a toll on workers.[44]
  • A report released in 2015 from the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO) research group looks at the impact of rising precarious, or insecure, employment in the GTHA.[45]
  • The Precarity Penalty, which involved a survey and interviews with workers aged 25-65, is a follow-up to PEPSO’s It’s More than Poverty report of 2013.
  • PEPSO has found that in 2011, 4% of workers in the GTHA worked in temporary or contract jobs and for workers in Toronto, the figure was 19.4%. In 2014, the percentage of those having temporary and contract work in the GTHA had risen to 20.3%, and in Toronto, 22.7%.
  • In 2014, less than half of the GTHA’s workers (48.1%) and Toronto’s workers (45.7%) had the most secure form of employment, i.e., the “standard employment relationship.” Only Hamilton’s workers fared worse (at 40.7%) within the Region.[46]

work-employmentcategoriesintheGTHA

Employment Categories in the GTHA, 2014:[47]

 

  • Temporary employment increased by 17% in Toronto between 2011 and 2014. It decreased marginally only in Halton and York.

work-formsofemploymentrelationshipbyregion

Forms of the Employment Relationship by Region, 2011 vs. 2014[48]

 

  • White men have higher rates of permanent full-time employment with benefits than either women or racialized individuals in the GTHA. Rates have dropped since 2011 for racialized men and women. They have grown for white women and have dipped slightly for white men.

 

work-standardemploymentrelationshipbysexandraceGTHA

Standard Employment Relationship by Sex and Race, GTHA, 2011-2014[49]

 

  • The precariously employed were far more likely to report perceived discrimination as a barrier. They were:
    • more than six times as likely to report discrimination as a barrier to getting work,
    • almost 12 times as likely to report it as a barrier to retaining work, and
    • more than twice as likely to report it as a barrier to advancing in work.[50]
  • Once someone is in precarious employment, it is very hard to climb out of it. And this does not apply only to low-paying jobs—those in the middle class are struggling to hang onto their status.[51]
  • It is well documented that general health improves as income does. But the relationship between the two is complex, the report finds.
    • Even at middle- and high-income levels, GTHA workers whose employment was less secure were more likely to report poorer health than those whose work was more secure.
    • Conversely, workers at low-income levels whose jobs were more secure were the most likely to report poorer health.
  • In 2014, workers in low-income/less-secure employment were more than twice as likely to report poorer mental health as those in high-income/more-secure employment (39.7% and 15.9% respectively). [52]
  • The report authors recommend combatting precarious employment by:
    • building a dynamic labour market that better supports the precariously employed,
    • enhancing social and community supports for this new market, and
    • ensuring that jobs work as a pathway not only to income but also to employment security.[53]

 

Many Torontonians will be affected by Ontario’s minimum wage increase, which is slated to take effect in late 2015:

  • Currently $11 an hour, Ontario’s general minimum wage (which applies to most employees) will increase to $11.25, giving the province the second-highest minimum wage in the country, behind the Northwest Territories’ $12.50.
    • Alberta and Saskatchewan tie for the lowest minimum wage at $10.20.[54]

work-minimumwagesacrosscanada

Minimum Wages Across Canada[55]


Minimum wages for students under 18 and workers serving alcohol are not included.
* Indicates change will come into effect later this year.
Toronto Star graphic. Source: Canadian Press.

 Ideas-and-Innovations

Commissioned by four of Ontario’s biggest pension plans, the Boston Consulting Group undertook a study to learn more about the relationship between the health of communities and different kinds of pensions:[56]

  • The study found that most money from defined benefit plans is spent locally, and that seniors who have these plans are more confident consumers.
  • Plans that are the responsibility of the employee to manage and invest, and that have no standard disbursement strategy, are unreliable and can cause stress.
  • The study recommended that workplace pensions be mandatory.[57]

 

 

The following groups are addressing issues relating to work through their innovative community-based programs.

 

Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.

 

ACCES Employment – Assisting job seekers from diverse background to integrate into the Canadian job market

Alzheimer Society of Toronto – Alleviating personal and social consequences of dementia

Buddies in Bad Times Theatre – Developing and presenting artists’ voices in the LGBTQ* community

Canadian Urban Institute – Building wisdom and inspiring leadership for healthy urban development

Common Ground Co-operative – Supporting people with developmental disabilities

Connect Legal  – Promoting entrepreneurship in immigrant communities

CTI Canadian Training Institute – Enhancing the effectiveness of client services delivered by criminal justice and behavioural health services

CultureLink Settlement Services – Developing and delivering settlement services to meet the needs of diverse communities

Daily Bread Food Bank – Fighting to end hunger

Drum Artz Canada – Encouraging creative expression through mentorship, percussion, and music

Eastview Neighbourhood Community Centre – Serving a low-income, ethnically and socially diverse community

First Work – Helping youth find and keep meaningful employment

Fred Victor – Providing accessible housing to people experiencing homelessness and poverty

Frontier College – Elevating literacy through a wide range of programming

Interval House – Enabling abused women and children to have access to safe shelter and responsive services

Learning Enrichment Foundation (LEF) – Providing holistic and integrated services in York Region

Local Food Plus/Land Food People Foundation – Nurturing regional food economies

Mosaic Institute – Harnessing the diversity of Canada’s people to build a stronger, more inclusive nation

New Circles Community Services – Offering volunteer driven services in Toronto’s Thorncliffe Park, Flemingdon Park and Victoria Village

Newcomer Women’s Services Toronto – Delivering educational and employment opportunities for immigrant women and their children

Parkdale Activity Recreation Centre (PARC) – Working with members of the Parkdale community on issues of poverty and mental health

Scadding Court Community Centre – Providing opportunities for inclusive recreation, education, and community participation

Scarborough Arts – Developing programming and cultural initiatives in collaboration with the community

Sistering: A Women’s Place – Offering emotional and practical supports enabling women to take greater control over their lives

Skills for Change of Metro Toronto – Creating learning and training opportunities for immigrants and refugees

SkyWorks Charitable Foundation – Advocating and participating in social change through community film making

Springboard – Helping people develop the skills they need to overcome barriers and achieve their full potential

St. Stephen’s Community House – Programming for newcomer and low-income residents

Success Beyond Limits Education Program – Improving educational outcomes and providing support to youth in Jane and Finch

Tropicana Community Services – Providing opportunities to youth, newcomers, and people of Black and Caribbean heritage in Scarborough

Windfall – Providing new, donated clothing to 64,000 people in the GTA, more than 21,000 of which are children

WoodGreen – Enhancing self-sufficiency, promoting well-being and reducing poverty

Youth Employment Services (YES) – Empowering disadvantaged youth through employment services

YWCA Toronto – Transforming the lives of women and girls through programs that promote equality

Workman Arts Project of Ontario – Developing and supporting artists with mental illness and addiction issues

 

 


 

[1] City of Toronto. (2014) Economic Indicators – May 2014. Last accessed on July 1, 2014 from http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf; City of Toronto. (2015). Economic Indicators – July 2015. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf;

[2] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[3] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[4] NVS Table IX-4-b-i.

[5] City of Toronto (2013). Toronto Employment Survey 2012. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/city_planning/sipa/files/pdf/2012_TES.pdf.

[6] City of Toronto (2013). Toronto Employment Survey 2013. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2014/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-69158.pdf.

[7] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[8] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[9] City of Toronto. (May 2015). Economic Indicators – May 2015. Last accessed June 2, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf.

[10] NVS Table IX-4-b-i: Average and Median Hourly Earnings (in Current Dollars) for Vital Signs Communities by CMAs and Economic Regions 2000, and 2008–2014.

[11] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[12] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[13] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[14] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[15] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[16] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf

[17] http://www.occ.ca/advocacy/ontario-economic-outlook-2015/toronto/.

[18] City of Toronto. (2015). Economic Indicators – July 2015. Last accessed September 23, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf; City of Toronto. (August 2014). Economic Indicators –  August 2014.

[19] City of Toronto. (2015). Advancing Toronto’s Prosperity, opportunity and liveability. Economic Dashboard – April 10, 2015. Last accessed September 20, 105 from:   http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/News,%20Reports%20&%20Resources/Economic%20Indicators/EconomicDashboard-Monthly_10April2015.pdf.

[20] City of Toronto. (2015). Advancing Toronto’s Prosperity, opportunity and liveability. Economic Dashboard – April 10, 2015. Last accessed September 20, 105 from:   http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/News,%20Reports%20&%20Resources/Economic%20Indicators/EconomicDashboard-Monthly_10April2015.pdf.

[21] City of Toronto. (2014). Quarter 4 2014 Results, Toronto’s Management Information Dashboard. Last accessed September 28, 2015 from: http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Managers%20Office/Toronto%20Progress%20Portal/Files/pdf/Management%20Information%20Dashboard%20Reports/Management%20Information%20Dashboard-Q4%202014.pdf.

[22] City of Toronto. (2014). Quarter 4 2014 Results, Toronto’s Management Information Dashboard. Last accessed September 28, 2015 from:  http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Managers%20Office/Toronto%20Progress%20Portal/Files/pdf/Management%20Information%20Dashboard%20Reports/Management%20Information%20Dashboard-Q4%202014.pdf.

[23] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[24] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[25] The Mowat Centre. (2014). Redesigning Collaboration Opportunities for Innovation in Toronto’s Labour Market. Last accessed July 2, 2015, from http://mowatcentre.ca/wp-content/uploads/publications/86_redesigning_collaboration.pdf.

[26] This data has been collected from the 2011 NHS. Because there is a lack of available data on employment outcomes of certain groups, defining the exact size of youth facing barrier to employment challenging. The NHS excludes a portion of the 2006 (and earlier) census population and data were collected in a voluntary survey, making the results vulnerable to non-response bias. As a result, NHS data cannot be compared reliably with those from earlier Census releases. Comparisons with previous census periods should be considered with caution.

[27] CivicAction. (2014). Escalator: Jobs for Youth Facing Barriers: Companies Youth Moving Up in the World. Last accessed September 18, 2015, from http://civicaction.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/EscalatorReport2014.pdf.

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